Coronary artery disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Coronary artery disease or myocardium is a congenital heart defect that is difficult to detect. This disease can get worse over time, causing ischemic heart disease and symptoms of angina.

Among people with cardiovascular disease in general, people with coronary artery disease account for only about 5%. Therefore, when it comes to this disease, many people still feel quite unfamiliar and do not really understand it. Let's learn with SignsSymptomsList.com what coronary artery disease is, how dangerous it is as well as how to treat it in the following article.

What is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease is often mistaken for coronary artery disease, but it is a congenital heart malformation. The coronary arteries normally cover the outside of the heart, conducting blood to supply oxygen and energy to the heart cells to work.

But for patients with coronary artery disease, there will be a segment of coronary artery going through the heart muscle. During systole (the heart contracts to push blood out of the heart chambers), this artery will be squeezed tight causing blockage during systole. However, at this time, the blood in the chambers of the heart is ejected to the circulatory system but has not been supplied to the coronary arteries, in diastole (when the heart is dilated, blood returns to the heart), new blood reaches the coronary arteries to nourish the muscles. heart. Therefore, muscle bridge in the early stages does not cause myocardial ischemia, so there are almost no symptoms.

Symptoms of coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment • SignsSymptomsList.com

About 30% of patients with coronary artery disease have no symptoms or are unclear at a young age. That's because the body has adapted to this situation for many years and the coronary muscle bridge has not been compressed much. Some possible symptoms include chest heaviness, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath, but medical examination does not diagnose the disease.

In addition to accompanying symptoms such as shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, unexplained fatigue, some patients also have other symptoms such as:

  • Chest tightness: This symptom almost always occurs, the pain can increase from time to time, especially when weather changes or anxiety, stress.
  • Angina: Patients may often experience a feeling of tightness in the chest or pressure in the front of the chest, pain spreading to the left arm or below the jaw, shortness of breath, fatigue. Some patients may have symptoms of myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, coronary artery spasm.

Coronary artery disease usually does not cause any symptoms before the age of 30 because the myocardial band at this stage is still soft and unaffected. But as the age increases, the coronary arteries become stiffer, thicker heart muscle puts pressure on the malformed coronary artery, so symptoms will appear more often.

How to detect coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment • SignsSymptomsList.com

To diagnose cardiomyopathy, doctors need to use imaging tests. If only based on clinical symptoms or electrocardiogram, echocardiography, it is difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease.

People with symptoms of angina similar to coronary artery disease, but with neither evidence of atherosclerosis nor constriction, are at increased risk for coronary artery disease. At that time, the patient needs to go to the cardiology medical facilities for an in-depth examination.

Some diagnostic imaging tests for cardiomyopathy include:

  • Stress electrocardiogram: Stress electrocardiogram to check for signs of myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy to detect areas of poor circulation, diagnosis of cardiomyopathy.
  • Percutaneous coronary angiography: This is the gold standard for accurate diagnosis of coronary artery bypass. In addition, intravascular echocardiography (IVUS) can also detect coronary artery disease. Depending on the specific case and the medical equipment of the hospital, the doctor will choose the most suitable diagnostic method for you.

Is coronary artery disease dangerous?

The severity of cardiomyopathy depends on the likelihood of complications. If not treated properly, the disease can cause complications such as:

  • Chest pain
  • Atrioventricular block
  • Left ventricular failure
  • Sudden death

GS. Pham Gia Khai said that coronary artery disease alone hardly causes myocardial infarction, or if it does, the rate is also very low. In middle age, the dilation of the myocardium gradually decreases due to a number of comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiomyopathy, making the muscle bridge segment tight, difficult to relax and causing angina, anemia. localized cardiomyopathy and other symptoms similar to coronary artery disease.

Cardiomyopathy, although not too dangerous, is difficult to treat. This will make the disease symptoms more and more severe and obvious, making it difficult for the patient to live if they do not know how to improve the disease.

How to treat coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment • SignsSymptomsList.com

There are two common treatments for cardiomyopathy: medication and surgery.

1. Drug treatment

Patients with coronary artery disease, if there are no symptoms, will not need to use drugs. However, when symptoms of myocardial ischemia appear, the patient needs to see a doctor for proper treatment. Doctors will usually prescribe beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers to help relax the heart muscle, lower blood pressure, and reduce arrhythmias.

Cardiomyopathy is unlikely to respond to medication. Therefore, the goal of disease control is to treat opportunistic diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial ischemia due to coronary atherosclerosis.

2. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery

This method is only done when the patient is not responding to medication or the symptoms are getting worse and out of control. However, the surgery will be very difficult to perform and the success is not high. Therefore, the surgeon will perform the simpler method of bypassing this segment of the artery.


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