Symptoms of autoimmune bullous disease Pemphigus

Autoimmune bullous Pemphigus is a rare skin disorder that causes blisters and sores on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes such as the mouth or external genitalia.

There are two main types of autoimmune bullous Pemphigus: one is common Pemphigus (Pemphigus vulgaris) which usually occurs in the inner mouth and causes pain, while Pemphigus foliaceus (Pemphigus foliaceus) usually affects the skin and is often more itchy. painful. The disease can affect people of any age but is more common in middle-aged or older people.

Autoimmune bullous skin disease is often confused with bullous pemphigoid, which also causes blisters on the skin. Pemphigus is a chronic condition and is best managed when detected early and treated promptly. Treatment modalities often combine specific medications and similar therapies for burns.

What are the common symptoms of autoimmune bullous disease?

Autoimmune bullous Pemphigus is characterized by blisters that appear on the skin and moist mucous membranes. These blisters are very susceptible to rupture, leaving open sores, oozing, and infection.

Signs and symptoms of two types of autoimmune bullous Pemphigus of the skin include:

  • Common Pemphigus (pemphigus vulgaris) : This type usually appears as blisters on the mouth and inside the lining of the mouth or the lining of the external genitals. The swelling makes you feel very painful but does not cause itching. In addition, blisters on the mouth or throat make it very difficult for you to swallow and eat food.
  • Pemphigus foliaceus (pemphigus foliaceus) : This type usually does not affect the moist mucous membranes and is not painful for you. However, this condition will affect as itches or calluses any area of ​​the body, especially the chest, back and shoulders.

When do you need to see a doctor?

You should see a doctor in case the blisters spread to the inside of the mouth or on the skin. If you've been diagnosed with autoimmune bullous Pemphigus of the skin and are being treated, you should also see your doctor if you notice any of the following:

  • New blisters or sores appear;
  • The sores spread very quickly on the skin;
  • Fever, swelling, redness, and pain could be signs that you have a skin infection;
  • Appearance of chills;
  • Weak or painful joints and muscles.

What Causes Autoimmune Bullous Pemphigus?

Pemphigus bullous disease is an autoimmune disorder rather than an infectious disease. In most cases, doctors do not find the exact cause of the outbreak.

Normally, your body's immune system functions to fight back against foreign invaders such as harmful viruses and bacteria. However, for patients with autoimmune bullous Pemphigus, their body's immune system mistakenly produces antibodies that attack healthy cells of the skin and mucous membranes.

More rarely, autoimmune bullous Pemphigus can form as a side effect when you take certain medications, especially blood pressure medications. However, the disease usually goes away once you stop taking the medication that causes the side effects.

What are the complications of autoimmune bullous Pemphigus?

Open sores caused by the blisters bursting make you more susceptible to infection, and these infections can even spread into the bloodstream and cause death. In addition, some of the other complications that can result from this disease include:

  • Skin infections;
  • Septicemia;
  • Gum disease and tooth loss (if you have blisters inside your mouth)
  • Causes side effects of drugs such as those used to treat high blood pressure and infections;
  • Cause death by infection.

How to diagnose this disease?

Blisters are a sign of many different diseases, so it is difficult for doctors to diagnose blisters on the skin based on the above symptoms alone. As a result, your doctor will ask you to give your medical history and conduct a skin and oral exam. In addition, they may run some of the following tests to get an accurate diagnosis:

  • Peeling : Doctors will use cotton swabs or fingers to rub a layer of normal skin against the blistered area. If you have autoimmune bullous Pemphigus on your skin, your outermost layer of skin will usually peel off.
  • Skin biopsy : In this experiment, doctors take a sample of cells from a blister and examine it under a microscope.
  • Serum tests : The purpose of these tests is to detect and detect antibodies present in the blood known as autoantibodies. These antibodies will usually increase significantly when you are first diagnosed with autoimmune scalds, and they tend to decrease as symptoms improve with treatment.
  • Endoscopy: In case you have the common form (pemphigus vulgaris), the doctor will conduct an examination of sores in the throat using an endoscopic technique. This process will likely involve placing a flexible tube (endoscope) deep into the throat.

What do you need to do during treatment?

You should take care of wounds caused by burst blisters to prevent infection and reduce the possibility of permanent scarring.

  • Using talcum powder (used topically to make skin smooth and dry): You may be able to stop skin sores from oozing pus and coagulate them by sprinkling plenty of talcum powder on top.
  • Clean the wound often with a clean linen cloth : Cleaning the wound regularly with linen towels can help prevent blisters and sores from becoming infected. You also need to remember that you should not share items used to clean wounds with others.
  • Protect your skin : You need to avoid activities that can hurt or infect the wound, such as playing sports or using a hot tub.

In addition, you should avoid eating foods that can irritate or cause blisters on the inside of the mouth, such as garlic, onions, and foods that can scratch the skin. You should also limit your exposure to sunlight because UV light can cause more blisters to appear on the skin.

Moreover, you also need to visit your dentist regularly to know how to maintain oral health especially when blisters appear in the oral mucosa making it difficult for you to brush your teeth daily.

In short, to limit the risk of blistering disease leaving complications on your skin such as scars, in addition to having to take care of your wounds at home carefully, you also need to see a doctor regularly. regularly for better advice during treatment.


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