What is the normal size of testicles?

The testicles are where the male sex hormones testosterone and sperm are produced. Its location is in the scrotum and attached to the spermatic cord. The average size of a man's testicles is about 4 x 3 x 2 cm and is oval in shape. Most men have 2 testicles. Usually the testicles are of different sizes. Many men always worry about whether their testicles are too big or too small. Through the article below, MSc.BS Tran Quoc Phong will learn with you about the normal size of the testicles of men in Vietnam.

Before learning about the standard size of the testicles, what is the standard size of the penis? The video below will answer your questions in a specific and clear way!


Identify the normal size of the testicles

The testicles are oval-shaped sperm - producing organs located in the scrotum. The average length of the testicles ranges from 4 to 5.1 cm. Testicles less than 3.5 cm long are considered small testicles. Like any other body part, testicle size varies from person to person, and usually has little effect on health.

Small testicle size


Small testicles are defined when the testicle is shorter than 3.5 cm.


Most cases of small testicles usually do not have too many health effects. However, there are several causes of small testicles:


Male hypogonadism occurs when the body does not produce enough testosterone to ensure the development of male characteristics. For example, penis size, testicle size and muscle mass are not fully developed. Some people have primary hypogonadism, where the testicles don't respond to signals from the brain to make enough testosterone and sperm. Hypogonadism is usually treated with testosterone replacement therapy.

You may have congenital hypogonadism, or due to the following factors

  • Infection.
  • Torsion of the spermatic cord in the testicle.
  • Steroid abuse.
  • The pituitary gland in the brain does not produce luteinizing hormone, a hormone that signals the testes to make testosterone.

Varicose veins of the testicles

Small testicle size can result from varicocele . This is a dilation of the blood vessels in the scrotum. Usually due to abnormalities in the venous valve in the scrotum. Distended veins inside the scrotum can cause the testicles to contract and soften.

What is the normal size of testicles?

Varicose veins in one testicle

Hidden testicles

An undescended testicle can also cause small testicles. It is a condition before birth where the testicles do not move down into the scrotum. An undescended testicle can often be treated surgically during infancy.

Klinefelter's syndrome

This genetic syndrome occurs when you have an extra X chromosome in your genome. Symptoms include small testicle size and some feminization features (less facial hair, increased breast tissue). Klinefelter syndrome means low testosterone levels and decreased sperm activity. This can lead to infertility.

A 2013 study found that slightly smaller testicles were linked to fathers' quality of upbringing. Reduced testosterone levels and testicular volume are related to paternal care levels.

Large testicle size


If you notice swollen testicles, see your doctor for an examination. Testicles that grow larger in adulthood can signal testicular cancer or another health problem. It's not a sign of increased activity in the testicles.


Possible causes of testicular enlargement include:


Epididymitis can cause an enlarged testicle. The cause is usually an infection. Epididymitis is a common symptom of chlamydia, a sexually transmitted infection. See your doctor right away if you notice unusual pain, burning when urinating, or discharge from the penis.

Epithelial cyst

This is a phenomenon that develops in the epididymis due to excess fluid. This is harmless and requires no treatment.


Orchitis is a condition caused by an infection, or the virus that causes mumps. If you experience pain and discomfort in your testicles, you should see your doctor.

See more: Mumps with testicular complications and what you need to know

What is the normal size of testicles?

Epididymitis and orchitis can cause testicular enlargement

Membrane effusion

The testicles are protected in a membrane called the epididymis. The testicle membrane contains fluid that helps the testicle slide up and down in the scrotum. Hydroceles can cause testicles to increase in size. When a lot of fluid builds up in the membranes of the testicles, it can be a sign of old age. Or it could be a sign of testicular inflammation.

Testicular torsion

Spinal cord torsion occurs when the testicles rotate too much. This prevents blood flow to the testicles. See your doctor right away if you experience persistent testicular pain after an injury; or pain that comes on suddenly without warning. Testicular torsion is an emergency requiring medical intervention to save the testicle.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer occurs when cancer cells proliferate in your testicles. See your doctor right away if you notice any new lumps or masses around your testicles.

Testicular examination steps

No matter how large or small your testicles are, you should do a monthly testicular self-exam to check for lumps or unusual changes. You can do a self-exam at home after showering or before getting dressed in the morning.

To test yourself, take a minute to gently roll the testicle between your thumb and finger to feel for a change in size, shape, or firmness. You can do this in front of a mirror to make it easier to see your testicles.

If you feel pain on a gentle exam or you notice a lump, swelling, or unusual change, see your doctor soon. Such changes may suggest testicular cancer or infection.

You may feel a wire-like structure, called the epididymis, at the base of each testicle. This structure transports sperm from the testicles and is a normal male structure.

What is the normal size of testicles?

Some steps to self-exam testicles at home to detect abnormalities early

Testicular care and protection habits

Testicular self-exam

Men should self-examine their testicles at least once a month; to check for lumps or changes in testicle size . Doctors usually recommend doing it after a hot bath or shower. At this time, the scrotal skin is most relaxed, making it easier for you to feel the testicles inside. Contact your doctor if you notice unusual changes or lumps inside. Testicular cancer is a rare but highly curable disease. If your doctor diagnoses and treats this cancer in its early stages, you can usually recover from treatment.

See more: The doctor replied "Can testicular atrophy be cured?"

Quitting smoking

Smoking is a serious risk factor for a number of urinary diseases, including bladder , kidney, and prostate cancers. Studies also show a strong link between smoking and testicular cancer. The findings indicate that recreational smokers may be twice as likely to develop testicular germ cell tumors or neuroblastoma. In addition, many studies also suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on sperm count and motility. So quit smoking (all tobacco) for healthy sperm.

Some men may be concerned about the difference in testicle size. Most men have one testicle smaller than the other; or one testicle hangs lower than the other. This is a normal phenomenon.

What is the normal size of testicles?

Quitting the habit of smoking helps men protect and take care of their testicle health

Hope the above article has helped you better understand testicle size . Certain health conditions and problems, such as testicular cancer, can cause changes in the shape and size of the testicles. Performing regular testicular self-exams can help detect these conditions early. If you see any signs of abnormality in the testicles, you should contact your doctor for advice and prompt treatment.